Day 2 :
- ###Anthropology of Food: The Social Dynamics of Food Security###Food Safety: Child Nutrition, Food Security and Nutrition Education PolicS###Food Security and its Nutritional Impact###Environmental and Climate Impacts on Food Security###Food Packaging ###Agricultural and Food Economics ###Food Security, Poverty and Sustainability###The Security of Water, Food, Energy and Livability of Cities ###Quality control & Management###Food Safety and Food Inspection ###Food Poverty and Insecurity: International Food Inequalities ###Food Microbiology and Food Safety ###Allergen Management in Food Production ###Food Waste ###Food Security and Risk Assessment ###Sustainable Food systems and Argo-Ecological Food Production
Location: New York,USA
Rashid Cheraghi , Khuzestan province, Ahwaz, Farhangian, Atlas street, p7
Rashid Cheraghi has her expertise in agronomy and ecology in agriculture. The Land Assessment Model responds to new pathways to improve crop yields and better use of crops. This model, based on climatic indices and using GIS software, provides a more easy way to optimize the use of raw materials in agriculture. This approach reacts to all stakeholders and has a different way of focusing on precision farming.
Agro climatic zoning is one of the solutions to consider suitable planning for application of arable land resources and feasibility of developing an arable system in an area. Producing rain fed crops can develop with minimal risk by studying the climate characteristics. So by identifying prone areas, spatial distribution and applying appropriate management methods, land production potential can be predicted and maximum utilization can be achieved. The aim of this study is determining suitable area for canola cultivation. Therefore land information, topography (slope, slope direction and height) and Meteorology data (type of climate, the average rainfall and the average temperature) of the area were collected and analyzed in GIS environment. Also suitable temperatures and precipitation probability were prepared to evaluate ecological needs of Canola based on the climatic conditions. After preparation, the results of zoning agro climatic showed this study area in dry land areas divided into four groups:
1: suitable group: 100-75 percent probability of optimal conditions with an area of 42.96 percent of the arable land area
2: middle group: 50-75 percent probability of optimal conditions with an area of 35.38 percent of the arable land area
3: weak group: 20-50 percent probability of optimal conditions with an area of 21.65 percent of the arable land area
4: unsuitable group (Non-agricultural): with an area of 40.85 percent of the arable land area
According to the acquired results, the most important limiting factor in producing Canola is moisture. The next limiting factor is land slope in producing Canola.
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Thapelo Mothae demonstrated ability and passion for research mainly working on smallholder farmers’ communal land access rights, market access and gender in rural communities in the KwaZulu Natal province. He is an independent researcher who is highly teachable and has strong leadership qualities. He is eager to share his findings at an international stage and to add to the pool of knowledge and interventions that address challenges of food security using local solutions.
ABSTRACT : Smallholder farmers have been key custodians of most African nation’s food and nutrition security, yet they are challenged by several factors including lack of access to land, access to credit and access to formal markets. Women smallholder farmers are the most affected due to the patrilineal nature of communal land allocation in most rural societies. However, women smallholder farmers continue to produce food for their households and earn income for their livelihoods. This study assessed the relationship between gender and communal land access and how they collectively impact on smallholder farmers’ access to markets. A sample of 135 households was selected purposively in Appelsbosch, KwaZulu-Natal province in South Africa. The mixed methods approach of research was used. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics in SPSS and content analysis. The results indicated that women land rights were mostly secondary and land access was closely linked to relationship with male relatives through marriage ties. The study also found that smallholder farmers faced numerous challenges in terms of accessing land and markets therefore, more equitable measures for secure land rights, improvement in extension services, creation of engendered and stable markets for smallholder farmers were recommended.
Carly Rain Adams, 2010 Greenspire Dr. Lincoln, NE 68521
The food energy and water nexus is the inseparable connection linking water and energy as key members of food production. The steady increase in population is directly related with the increase in food demand, and therefore the need for water and energy. We are challenged with a unique opportunity to co-manage these resources, as conservation of one is directly linked to the conservation of its counterpart. Therefore, immediately taking on this critical challenge, will lead to tangible impacts on the water and energy crisis our food system is faced with. To reduce the distance between process productivity and resource efficiency we must first determine, within food processing, where water and energy are being consumed. Therefore, this research focused on determining opportunities for water-energy optimization and wastewater reconditioning in a medium sized fluid milk processing facility. To reach the overarching objective, the first task was to develop a baseline of the current consumption of water/energy and wastewater generation. Results from a medium sized fluid milk processing plant indicate that the production of pasteurized fluid milk demands 0.12 kWh and 0.02 Therm of electricity and natural gas, respectively. In addition, every gallon of milk produced demands 0.81 gallons of freshwater. Consistently, the volume of wastewater represents 75% of the volume of freshwater consumed. On average 53.08% of the water used to produce milk is consumed during the cleaning stages, thus this process water streams offer numerous opportunities for water reconditioning and reuse. Consequently, the next step in this ongoing project is to develop a risk assessment model for the reuse of cleaning solutions obtained from the cleaning operations since caustic solution represented 233% of the total water lost during cleaning. The outcomes from this study will allow the dairy industry to optimize their processes while reducing their water/energy footprint. This consumption of resources places a large financial strain on producers. Annually, the medium sized fluid milk processing plant spent more than $47,000 on energy and water utilities alone. Therefore, immediately addressing resource reduction and the economic impact tied with it will lead to tangible impacts on the water and energy crisis that falls upon the food system.
Xinjuan Hu, Ph.D. student UNL, USA
Xinjuan Hu has great passion for improving the water utilization efficiency, reducing waste generation to develop sustainable food processing industry. Her project is a great case study on how a stream traditionally considered waste can be treated to obtain useful by-products. In this case, biomass for biodiesel production and water for reuse. Her work will contribute to disseminate her interesting findings among stakeholders and promote innovative alternatives for wastewater treatment, nutrient recovery and water reuse.
Microalgae are promising source for biodiesel production and wastewater treatment. The purpose of this study was to select microalgae species that can efficiently treat food processing wastewater and accumulate biomass for biodiesel production. Seven microalga species were screened and finally three species and combination of two of them were acclimatized to help them adapt to the nutrient rich food processing wastewater. Results showed that acclimatized microalgae showed better growth in wastewater. And combination of Chlorella protothecoides and Scenedesmus obliquus removed 89.5% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 86.2% total phosphorus and 48.5% total nitrogen. Scenedesmus obliquus and the combination of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus achieved the highest biomass accumulation (1.91 g/L and 1.82 g/L respectively). The strains evaluated in this study were able to stand high levels of COD (>5,000 mg/L) and coexist with bacteria naturally present in wastewater. The algae/bacteria synergy improved the removal of total nitrogen and total phosphorus and accelerate the rate of COD removal.