Scientific Program

Conference Series LLC Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 3rd Global Food Security, Food Safety & Sustainability Conference New York,USA.

Day 1 :

  • ###Anthropology of Food: The Social Dynamics of Food Security, ###Food Safety: Child Nutrition, Food Security and Nutrition Education PolicS ###Food Security and its Nutritional Impact ###Environmental and Climate Impacts on Food Security ###Food Packaging ###Agricultural and Food Economics ###Food Security, Poverty and Sustainability ###The Security of Water, Food, Energy and Livability of Cities ###Quality control & Management ###Food Safety and Food Inspection ###Food Poverty and Insecurity: International Food Inequalities ###Food Microbiology and Food Safety ###Allergen Management in Food Production ###Food Waste ###Food Security and Risk Assessment ###Food Security and Risk Assessment
Biography:

Abstract:

Abstract

With the resurgence of interest in urban agriculture and urban food systems, policy makers across the United States have been working to try and find the best ways possible to build, grow and maintain more sustainable, effective and equitable food systems. Although progress has been encouraging, recent interventions to improve food systems have met a number of obstacles, chief among them being the struggle to provide true equality within the system, a concept more commonly referred to as “food sovereignty.” In order to provide truly equitable food systems, food needs to be thought of not just as a commodity, but also as an integral part of the social life of members within specific communities. In order to do that, a more nuanced contextual understanding of current urban community food systems and what food systems those communities ideally envision must be taken into account. Geonarratives, a mixed-methods analysis approach that combines geographic information systems (GIS) with more traditional survey methods, stands uniquely qualified to tackle this problem. This study seeks to create geonarratives for members of select communities within Baltimore city showing their current interaction with their food system from a geospatial perspective, and then use these geonarratives during a follow-up interview to assist participants in envisioning their ideal food system and how they would interact with it. Providing a geospatial context to how someone interacts with their food system will provide them with the knowledge necessary to envision a more equitable and supportive system tailored to their specific needs.

Yusuf Iliyasu

Yusuf Iliyasu, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria.

Title: MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCES THE CHOICE OF AGRICULTURE AS A COURSE OF STUDY AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES.
Biography:

I am a trained and certified teacher by profession. A BS degree holder in Agribusiness Management, MS in Agricultural Education and PhD in Agricultural Extension from Utah State University USA and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria respectively. Currently an Associate Professor of Agricultural Rxtension with the Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State, Nigeria. My present job description involves teaching, research and extension sercice delivery. 

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the factors that influence choice of courses among undergraduate students of agriculture in Nigerian universities. A total of 480 final year students of agriculture from twelve federal universities were randomly selected. Structured questionnaires were administered to sample the opinions of respondents in each of the universities. Data collected were analyzed using frequency distribution, chi-square, regression and correlation analyses, as well as analysis of variance and the Likert attitude scale. Results obtained revealed that undergraduate students of agriculture in Nigerian universities were mostly single (86.9%), males (65.9%) and between the ages of 21 – 30 years. The choice of agriculture as a course of study was mostly (70.3%) out of their interest. There was no relationship (p < 0.05) between parents’ type of occupation and students course of study. Furthermore, parents of the students are found to be literate (62.1%) with varying levels of tertiary education. There is a significant relationship (p < 0.05) between types of agricultural education and sex, while university type, age and marital status show no significant relationship. However, there is no significant relationship with university type, age sex and marital status. It is therefore recommended that government should encourage the study of agriculture by providing the enabling environment such as capital and land to enable fresh graduate take to agriculture as a business and a career.

 

Biography:

Since joining the Bahauddin Zakariya University, of Pakistan, I have been involved with studies related to Modern Agriculture related challengers and strategies in Changing climate to ensure the world food security and to safeguard the environment with sustainable crop production. Before joining University, I had visited the Ohio State University USA and worked with world famous scientist Professor Dr. Rattan Lal. Than after coming back to my home land I have been worked at a Fertilizer company as a senior researcher.

Abstract:

Changing climate creates world food security threat being a serious concern for future crop production. Maize (Zea mays L.) among the cereal crop after wheat and rice is mainly utilized as staple food in many developed countries of the world. The dire need of modern agriculture is improvement in soil fertility status, enhanced agriculture production, and to protect the environment. The production of maize is highly hampered by low fertility status of the soil. Therefore, some alternative but sustainable, environment friendly and cost effective approaches of nutrient management can be a possible solution for these problems. So, the present study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during spring season 2013-14 to check the effect of various fertilizer levels and seed inoculants on the yield and quality of maize. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement by using three replications. Treatments were control, 100% recommended dose of NPK, 75% recommended dose of NPK + 1.5 t ha-1 PM, 75% recommended dose of NPK + 3 t ha-1 FYM and 75% recommended dose of NPK + 4.5 t ha-1 press mud along with seed inoculants (Azospirillum and Azotobacter) separately for each plot. Data regarding growth, yield, and quality parameters were collected and analyzed. Interactive effect of both the factors was non-significant for all the observed parameters except 1000-grain weight (g), and grain yield. While considering the individual effect of fertilizer levels, maximum number of grains cob-1 (512), 1000-grain weight (342 g), grain yield (8530 kg ha-1 ), and grain zinc contents (33.80 mg kg-1 ) were obtained with treatment N2 (100% recommended dose of NPK). Regarding seed inoculants maximum values of yield and yield contributing parameters were obtained in I1 (Inoculation with Azospirillum). Regardless of superior performance of N2, economic analysis showed that maximum net income and benefit cost ratio were obtained where 75% recommended dose of NPK + 1.5 t ha-1 poultry manure was applied (N3). Consequently, it was recommended for the farmers that 75% recommended dose of NPK + 1.5 t ha-1 PM along with Azospirillum gave maximum output and net return

Biography:

Abstract:

Land use changes are vital to the food security challenge. Food security has determined the history of mankind. The global population will increase to about 9 billion during the next four decades. Food and feed demands have been projected to double in the 21st century, which will further increase the pressure on the use of land, water and nutrients. The interactions between food security and land use, both now and over the next few decades, are of paramount interest to policy, science and society at large. During the past one decade the study area has undergone many LULC changes due to rapid urban growth, poorly planned infrastructural development and attitude towards horticulture that have adversely affected the food security. For LULC change detection analysis temporal Landsat satellite data captured by Thematic Mapper (TM) were employed. Maximum Likelihood (MLH) supervised classification algorithm was applied to classify the study area, whereas, Post Classification Comparison (PCC) approach was adopted to analyze the LULC changes. Results revealed that over a period of 10 years, a decrease has taken place in agriculture and forest at a change rate of - 3.7 % and -2.26 % respectively. On the other hand, horticulture, built up have increased at a rate of 2.17 % and 1.13 % respectively.

Nurshahirah saleh

Nurshahirah saleh, 26,taman desa serdang,lorong 15,43400 sri kembangan,selangor,malaysia

Title: Assessing Food Safety and Halalan-Toyyiban in Handling Food Truck Business at Selangor
Biography:

Abstract:

Abstract— Purchasing and consuming foods sold by the food truck vendors is becoming a popular trend due to the hectic lifestyle of Malaysian people nowadays.Street-vended foods are usually produced in small mobile units (e.g., vans, trailers or carts) from which food is sold, mostly with inadequate layout and equipment, frequently associated with poor environmental sanitation, improper food handling and storage practices, as well as low quality of raw materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of halalan-toyyiban practices among food truck vendors in Selangor. The research was focused on the hygiene practices by the food handlers operating food truck service.  Presence of foodborne pathogen of the high risks foods during preparation and storage to the point of consumer purchase were assessed at a certain period of times. 10 sample of the meals from ten different food-truck vendors were collected at three different gap of hours for microbiological analysis using 3M petrifilm, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus., aerobic bacteria and coliform present. The data obtained from this study showed that the present of microbe effect by the practices of food handling in increasing of time where the food exposed. Five vendors were audit and interviewed on the halal supply chain accordance to the MS 1500:2009 Standard showed poor implement on halal product in order to get cheap prices. It was concluded that the food analyzed in this study were unhygienic.

Biography:

Abstract:

Abstract (brief summary): This article is devoted to the analysis of land as a factor of production. The empirical method of analysis gave us possibility to reveal the tendency of reduction of ​​arable land spots, which is the most valuable source of land for the agricultural sector, and significantly important than other categories of agricultural sector. This trend indicates that users of arable land, hayfield and pastures, and especially small scale farmers, do not have the right capacity to fully cultivate arable lands and hayfields, and this is creating a ground for their transfer into a lode land (abandoned) or into other lower categories of land. In this connection, we can conclude that on the basis of cause-effect reasons, the problem in Tajikistan is not a lack of this factor, but its inefficient and irrational use practices. Through effective use of existing land and natural resources, we may expand and increase the production capacities of Tajikistan. 

Key words: land, factors of production, natural resources, arable land, and lode lands (abandoned).

One of the foundations for the living of a civilized society is material production, which is the process of interaction of a person with objects of labor through various means and possibilities. Jointly, all these factors and elements including labor, the means of labor and humanity formulate the production forces of society. In modern interpretation, they can be mentioned as resources or factors of production.
           Undoubtedly, the main criterion for the progress of human being is the level and nature of the development of the productive forces, which in their turn they determine the degree of production efficiency. From the point of view of political economy and economic theory it is known that the productive forces impact on nature, changing the form and properties of natural resources. As a result of this influence, the productive forces are able to produce material goods to meet the different needs of people. In this connection, the productive forces of society express and shape the people's relationship to the nature.

In the current time, the value of land as a core factor of production of agricultural products is mainly estimated with cadastral price. Taking into account such pricing method, it is necessary to consider the various properties of the land, such as location, productivity, etc.
            The main distinguishing feature of the land, as a factor of production, is that it is impossible to replace it with other factors. Thinking logically, we can say that if human labor can be replaced by machines, or by some means of fixed or circulating assets, but land resource is an irreplaceable production resource (especially in agriculture). The society can regulate the size of the labor factor or the amount of productive capitals, but the possibility of expansion of ​​agricultural land, is severely restricted.

According to economic theory, all factors of production are characterized by a fixed supply in a particular period of time. This condition is even more actualized with regard to the natural factor of production. D. Ricardo and T. Malthus firstly touched the topic of the quantitative reduction of natural resources and their use. The rule that they raised on “diminishing soil fertility” is says that best plots are first involved in the production turnover, then the medium level land and, lastly, the worst parts of the land [2, 386]. For our study and interest, the population law of T. Malthus, which is based on the assumption that the number of consumption of goods by humanity grows with arithmetical progression, and the population grows geometric scale [2, 396]. In other words, gradually society will face a situation in which the production will not be enough for growing mass of people. According to FAO experts and data, the world's reserves of the main types of land resources have their limits as well. For example, the size of land for food production on the earth is 3.2 million hectares, more than half of which is already cultivated or used.

According to official statistics, there has been a tendency of reduction of agricultural land in the recent years in Tajikistan. So, if in 1991 year the size of the agricultural land was 4,434.1 thousand hectares, then in 2015 it was reduced to 3,612 thousand hectares (see Table 1). Comparing these numbers, we can see that the decrease level is about 19%.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1. Total land area and area of agricultural land (thousand hectares)

 

Indicators

1991

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Total land area

 

14254,5

14254,5

14255,5

14255,5

14255,5

14137,7

All agricultural land

4434,1

4577,1

4126,5

3864,6

3746,0

3612,0

Arable land

811,2

801,8

730,1

709,0

673,1

653,2

Perennial plantations

103,4

111,2

98,1

97,4

115,7

140,4

Hayfields

26,4

23,7

18,9

17,0

17,7

17,6

Pastures

3473,4

3621,2

3258,4

3012,5

2909,8

2771,5

Abandoned land areas  

19,7

19,2

21,0

28,7

29,7

29,3

 

Information Source: Tajikistan: 25 years of State Independence. Annual Statistical Paper. Published in Dushanbe 2016. Page.-310

 

The analysis shows that the reduction of arable land, which is the most valuable category of land for the agricultural sector, is significantly reducing compared to other categories of agricultural land. This trend indicates that users of arable land, hayfield and pastures, and especially small scale farmers, do not have the capacity to fully cultivate arable lands and hayfields, and these are creating ground for their transfer into a lode land (abandoned) or into other lower categories of land. According to the experts estimates, more than half of the country's territory - 9563.4 thousand hectares, or 67.1%, are low-productive or unsuitable lands for agriculture use. The possibilities of developing farming and agriculture on them are limited either by geomorphological soil conditions [1, 32-38].

 

As we see in the presented Table 1, the rate of reduction in these three categories of land is high and critical. Especially it concerns the reduction of arable land. Currently, the average world value of the size of arable land and its current productivity level per person is 0.4 hectares. Our calculations show that Tajikistan is in quite low level on this indicator. If in 1991 year the arable land area per capita was about 0.15 hectares, in 2015 year, this figure reached 0.08 hectares per capita [4, 310]. Such developments and use of land is a direct threat to the country's food and economic security.

As a rule, in agriculture sector, the process of reproduction is intertwined with the natural process of reproduction of agricultural lands. At the same time in this industry, the efficiency of production directly depends on the natural and climate conditions. A significant role in the efficiency of the agricultural sector belongs to the qualitative parameters and characteristics of land that we use. In the field of agricultural crop production, one of the main tasks is to provide agricultural crops with the necessary mineral and organic fertilizers. This practice takes place not only for increasing productivity of crops, but also to maintain the fertility of land, its protection from erosion and other natural phenomena. With is way the main content of the human impact on agricultural lands is contained. Also we can conclude that the above-mentioned ways of influencing the land are implemented by humanity with the aim of influencing the products we receive from land (plants). The land can act as a means of labor, because through the land human being influences plants. The formation of land for agricultural use has been the result of a natural process for many centuries. As a result, the evolution of the attitude of man to the earth, and his influence on property of land evolved in order to improve its qualitative characteristics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The quality of land as one of the key factor of production, their fertility is determined by the properties and attributes. The productivity of the land depends on the terrain and a number of other reasons. Also it is worth noting that natural and climate conditions affect productivity of land. These circumstances indicate the versatility and importance of land as a factor of production in general and its use in agricultural production process.
In addition to using the land factor in agricultural production, it is undeniable that land acts and is the main source of productive resources. In other words, the produced items mainly have natural origin (in fact synthetic compounds also have a natural origin).

The effectiveness land use as a factor of production largely depends on the degree of using/development of natural resources. The degree of development is determined by the measures and quality of exploration, extraction or piping out of the bowels of earth and preparation for production operation. According to the official statistics, Tajikistan in recent years, decreased the volume of geological exploration. For example, deep drilling geological searches were conducted only 2000s (Table 2). Such works have not been conducted in the recent years on territories of Tajikistan.

Table 2. The scope of geological exploration performed by types

Indicators

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Deep Exploration Drilling (by meters)

 

1241

 

 

 

Mechanical core drilling (by meters)

17330

5141

7349

5777

4294

Shock-mechanical drilling (by meters)

4297

2565

1352

1531

1616

 

Information Source: Tajikistan: 25 years of State Independence. Annual Statistical Paper. Published in Dushanbe 2016. Page.-313

 

At the same time, activities on mechanical column drilling and shock mechanical drilling also tend to decrease. All scientists of the country note that Tajikistan is rich in many types and reserves of minerals, which relate to spheres of the economy.
Such resources as fuel and energy are represented by coal, oil and natural gas fields/spots. In the structure of fuel and energy mineral resources the main place belongs to coal reserves. The metallurgical complex of the country is with its black ores, colored, rare and noble metals.
The agrochemical complex is characterized by large amounts of phosphorites reserves, rock salt, numerous deposits of boron ore, limestone and dolomites.

 

Also there are deposits of glass and ceramic raw materials such as quartz sand, wollastonite, pottery clays, asbestos, talc, refractory clays, barite, fluorite, bentonite, and ores, they all relate to the mineral resources of the industrial complex of Tajikistan.
Tajikistan is a mountainous country and rich in various types of construction mineral raw materials. Deposits of building mineral resources are open and explored in all regions of the country. They are represented by deposits of cement raw materials, torn and facing stones, brick raw materials, sand-gravel mixture, lime, gypsum, various clays, buildings sand, mineral paints, raw materials for the production of expanded clay, agloparite and heat-keeping materials.
In Tajikistan according to the statistical data except coal, the production of other products of the mining industry has a clear tendency to decrease (Table 3).

Table 3. Data on production of main products of mining industry

 

Indicators

1991

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

Coal (thousand tones)

313

33,9

22,2

98,5

199,7

1041,9

Oil (including gas condensate) (thousand tones)

107,7

25,7

18,4

21,7

27,0

24,6

Natural gas million м3

92,5

38,8

40,0

29,4

22,8

4,1

Nonmetallic building materials (thousand м3)

6118

824,8

97,7

283,1

467,0

1167,4

Salt (thousand tones)

72,5

65,1

49,0

66,0

50,4

35,7

 

Data Source: Tajikistan: 25 years of State Independence. Annual Statistical Paper. Published in Dushanbe 2016. Page 297.

 

The current low level of development of available land resources allows concluding that the problem of target use of the land and intensity of natural resources use suggests modernization of technological processes.
The water resources that our country has can be another important component in the land structure and can serve as a factor of production in the conditions of Tajikistan. Tajikistan is considered as the second country in terms of hydro resources between CIS country after Russian Federation. The main water basins are glaciers. The largest glacial system is the Pamir mountains, the glaciation area of ​​is 8041 sq. Km. The number of recorded glaciers in the Pamirs is 1085 pieces [4;8].
Through the country's territory, on average, there goes more than 72km3 of river flow per year, which is 12 thousand m3 per inhabitant residing in our country. There are 947 rivers in the country with a length of more than 10 km each, and the total length of rivers exceeds 28500 km.
Involvement of water resources available on the territory of Tajikistan can not only ensure energy security, but also it can definitely increase the fertility of agricultural soil. This issue was emphasized several times in the Messages of the President of Tajikistan, Emomali Rahmon to the Parliament of country.

An important component land use as a factor of production is the use of natural resources. If we propose that the land is the source of raw materials for production, then it can be assumed its efficiency can be determined by calculating the material consumption of the products. For determination of the material consumption of products at the level of macroeconomics, as noted by the specialists of Economics and Demography Institute of Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan, an intermediate expenditure indicator can be used [3, 365-367].
          Analysis shows that the share of intermediate expenditure (consumption) in relation to GDP in 2015 is 83% [4; 221]. This phenomenon of material consumption of GDP testifies the exceptional importance of implementing the policy of rational use of material (natural and raw materials) resources to increase country’s GDP. The fact is that reducing the material consumption of costs per unit means a decrease in the size of intermediate consumption, which ultimately leads to an increase of GDP.
          Based on qualitative and quantative analysis of the of land characteristics as a factor of production, it can be concluded that the problem is not the lack of this factor (land), but its inefficient and non-rational use in Tajikistan. Through effective use of existing land and natural resources, there is a great potential to expand and increase production capacities in this country.

 

Biography:

Abstract:

Cocoa Production in Nigeria had witnessed a rapid decline in the past two and a half decades mainly as a result of focus shift due to the oil boom since the late 1970s (Idowu, 2007). Nevertheless, agriculture especially cash crops export and particularly cocoa remains a substantial foreign exchange earner for the country. Cocoa is sourced from several regions around the world; West Africa is the largest producer, making up 70 percent of the world cocoa. The West African nation of Cot de voire alone grows 40 percent of the global supply of cocoa, with Ghana, Cameroon and Nigeria being the other major producers in the region (International Cocoa Organisation, 2007).  Nigeria is one of the principal producers and is ranked among the five largest producers of cocoa in the world. Cocoa is a perennial tree crop produced mainly in the tropical countries. Currently, production is concentrated in the West African Countries like Nigeria, Cote d’ Ivoire, Ghana and Cameroon. These countries collectively produce 70% of the world cocoa. In 2010/2011 season Cote d’ Ivoire led the world in cocoa production with 35% followed by Ghana, Indonesia and Nigeria (International Cocoa Organisation, 2012).

Table 1: World Cocoa Production (2010/2011)

Country

Amount Produced

Percentage of world production

Cote d’Ivoire

1.30 million

38.6% tones

Ghana

720 thousand tonnes

21.4%

Indonesia

574 thousand tonnes

17.0%

Nigeria

212 thousand tonnes

6.3%

Brazil

180 thousand tonnes

5.3%

Cameroon

175 thousand tonnes

5.2%

Ecuador

118 thousand tonnes

3.5%

Dominican republic

47 thousand tonnes

1.4%

Malaysia

43 thousand tonnes

1.3%

Source: International Cocoa Organisation, (2012).

 

Cocoa is essential to the livelihood of 40-50 million people worldwide including over 5 million small holder cocoa farmers who grow the valuable crop (Adebile and Amusan, 2011). Cocoa plays an important role in most countries as a source of foreign exchange and creation of jobs for an estimated fourteen million people (International Cocoa Organisation, 2007). Cocoa is mostly produced in 14 of the 36 States in Nigeria. The main producing states aside from Cross River in the South South are located in the South West of the country with major producing areas located in Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti Oyo States. Nwachukwu et al. (2010) identified low yields, ageing cocoa producing trees, inconsistent production patterns, disease incidence, pest attack and limited agricultural mechanization as key factors leading to decreasing cocoa production in Nigeria. In terms of yield, compared to other cocoa producing countries, Nigeria’s present yield is among the lowest, together with Ghana and Cameroon, while Cote d’Ivoire is the best performing country in West Africa in terms of yield while Indonesia is the best performer at the global level in terms of yield (Cadoni, 2013). This poor trend in yield, quality and monetary returns calls for the introduction of certification in cocoa production. Certification is a procedure by which an independent body gives a certificate that a farm, farmer group, processing facility, trader, importer or exporter has been assessed and is adhering to specific standards. The certification is intended to guarantee that the cocoa sold under the seal of a standard organization such as Fair Trade International (FLO), UTZ Certified, or Rainforest Alliance (RA) actually originated from a farm or operation that produces according to the relevant standards. Certification thus guarantees the authenticity and the integrity of sustainably produced cocoa being purchased by consumers. Participation in markets for certified cocoa represents a good income generation opportunity for small farmers in developing countries. However, for famers to avail themselves of this opportunity they would have to comply with voluntary quality and safety standards and procedures. According to Vogel (2009) the main objective of certified cocoa production is to improve the living conditions of cocoa farmers through the production of sustainable certified cocoa. Increasing farmers’ awareness of the environmental consequences of food contamination through poor farm practices resulted in a growing demand for the involvement of cocoa farmers in environmentally-friendly practices through certification. Certified cocoa production systems are distinguished by their adherence to a set of production and social standards promulgated by the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN). Cocoa output within this category is differentiated by a certificate issued by a recognized certification body that ensures standards have been met. Certified cocoa is differentiated on the basis of practices that are deemed environmentally sustainable and conserving of biodiversity. The broad objective of this study is therefore to assess cocoa farmers’ awareness and involvement in cocoa certification programme in enhancing cocoa productivity in Ogun State, Nigeria.

 

1.4 Specific Objectives are to;

i.                    ascertain the socio-economic characteristics of cocoa farmers in the study area;

ii.                  examine  respondents’ awareness of cocoa certification programme;

iii.                identify respondents’ sources of information on cocoa certification;

iv.                ascertain the level of farmers involvement in the cocoa certification programme;

v.                  identify the constraints associated with involvement in cocoa certification programme.

 

The hypotheses of the study were stated in null form:

H01: There is no significant relationship between the socio economic characteristics of the respondents and level of involvement in the cocoa certification programme in the study area.

H02:  There is no significant relationship between the constraints affecting cocoa farmers and their involvement in the cocoa certification programme in the study area

 

METHODOLOGY

The study was carried out in Ogun state, Nigeria. The state is situated among the Southwestern states of Nigeria, with a landmass of 16,409.26 square kilometers. The study area has 20 Local Government Areas, with a total of 4,054,272 (National Population Commission (NPC), 2006). Purposive random sampling was used to select two Local Government Areas namely; Yewa North and Odeda based on the high concentration of cocoa farmers in the two locations. Yewa  and Odeda people are predominantly farmers, common crops grown in the local governments include,  arable crops like cassava, maize, yam among others and cash crops like cocoa, oil palm, coffee and kola nuts.

 

Sampling Procedure and Sample Size

Yewa North Local Government Area was purposively selected for this study based on the a prior information that the local government area is the second largest cocoa producer in Ogun State. There are eleven wards in Yewa north Local Government Area. Four wards namely: Imasayi, Ibese, Igbogila, Joga, were purposively selected based on the high population of cocoa farmers in these wards.

 

Measurement of Variables

Age, household size, farming experience were measured at ratio level while sex, educational status, membership of association, marital status, sources of capital, labour, and constraints were measured at nominal level. Similarly, awareness, was measured as Yes (2), No (1). Level of respondents’ involvement in cocoa certification programme were measured as High Involvement (3), Moderate Involvement (2), No Involvement (1) and measured at nominal level.

 

Data Collection and Analysis

The instrument used for the data collection was subjected to face and content validity by consulting experts in the field of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. Items found ambiguous were removed. Test re-test was carried out with twenty (20) cocoa farmers who were not part of this study to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. The reliability of r = 0.76 which was significant indicating high internal consistency of the instrument used for this study. Simple descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean and frequency counts were used to analyze the objectives while chi-square; t-test was used to test the hypotheses of the study.

Results and discussion

The results in Table 1 revealed that majority (58.9%) of the respondents were above 40 years of age. About thirty percent (28.9%) of the respondents were between 31 – 40 years of age while only very few (12.20%) were less than 30 years of age. The average age of the respondents was 30.8 years. This indicates that the respondents are young and active. It corroborates the findings of Omoare and Oyediran, (2015) that people within this age bracket are economically active and possess the requisite energy for agricultural production. The results showed that most (92.2%) of the respondents were male while few (7.8%) were female in cocoa production. This is possible because cocoa farming is a tedious which makes more men to dominate in its production than compare to the women who carry out processing and marketing of cocoa bean. Majority (70%) of the respondents had secondary school education but 13.3% proceeded to tertiary education while 16.7% attended primary school. This implies that all the respondents have some level of formal education which could be advantage to adjust to new practices and got certification.the date assessed.rces.ll make available to Ngerians cost effective and envirinmentally ces. On the other hand government policy The result indicated that the household size of most (71.1%) of the respondents was 1 - 4 people while 28.9% had 5 – 8 people. Meanwhile, the average household size was 6 members. This shows that the household size of respondents was relatively large. Adegbite et al. (2007) cited in Omoare and Oyediran (2015) reported that large households’ size is an important factor in any rural areas because it provides the manpower for farm and other household activities. Also, the result showed that 31.1% of the respondents had spent less than 5 years in cocoa farming while many (63.3%) had been in cocoa farming for more than 11 years while. The mean year of experience in cocoa farming was 8.06 years. This shows that the respondents have been in cocoa farming for quite a long time. Above forty percent (44.1%) of the respondents cultivated more than 10 hectares of farm land, the implication of this is that cocoa farming is practiced on large scale in the study area. Only very few (12.2%) of the respondents cultivated less than 5 hectares for cocoa. The result disagrees to the findings of Kolawole, (2007) cited in Oyediran, (2013) which states that many rural farmers cultivate less than 3 hectares, Nigeria. The result on land acquisition revealed that 40.5% of the respondents inherited cocoa farms while 19.8% bought the farms. However, 14.4% and 6.3% respondents occupied the land as leaseholders and tenants respectively. This practice reflects the ageing cocoa farming with attendant low yield in Nigeria. Also, about fifty percent of the respondents were members of Cocoa Farmers Association (CFAN). Being a member of association exposes the farmers to many opportunities like credits, technology and certification. The result further showed that respondents got money through their personal savings (38.7%), cooperative (22.5%), and friends and family (19.8%) for the cocoa production in the study area. The finding agrees with Ajagbe et al. 2014 and Oyediran, 2013 that rural farmers do not have access to credit from financial institution but rather relied on cooperatives, friends and families and their personal savings which has inhibited their production capacity. Above fifty percent (52.2%) of the respondents were into full-time cocoa farming while others (28.8%) of the respondents were doing part-time farming. Most (65.6%) of the respondents generated ₦100,000 – 300,000/annum while 23.3% realized more than ₦300,000/ annum.  The average income generated from cocoa was ₦223,000.

 

Table 2: Distribution of respondents according to their socio economic characteristics (n = 90)

Variables

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Mean

Age

 

 

 

Below 30

11

12.20

 

31-40

26

28.90

 

41 and above

53

58.90

30.80

Sex

 

 

 

Male

83

92.20

 

Female

07

7.80

 

Educational status

 

 

 

Primary education

15

16.70

 

Secondary education

63

70.00

 

Tertiary education

12

13.30

 

Household size

 

 

 

1-4

26

28.90

 

5-8

64

71.10

3

Farming  experience (years)

 

 

 

Below 5

28

31.10

8.06

6-10

5

5.60

 

11 and above

57

63.30

 

Farm size (hectares)

 

 

 

>5

11

12.20

 

5-10

30

27.00

 

Above 10

49

44.10

 

Land acquisition

 

 

 

Tenant

07

6.30

 

Inheritance

45

40.5

 

Purchase

22

19.8

 

Leasehold

16

14.4

 

Membership of Association

 

 

 

Yes

54

48.6

 

No

36

32.4

 

Source of Fund

 

 

 

Friends and family

22

19.8

 

Cooperative society

25

22.5

 

Self savings

43

38.7

 

Occupational status

 

 

 

Full time

58

52.2

 

Part time

32

28.8

 

Income size (₦)

 

 

 

Less than 100,000

10

11.1

 

100,000 - 300,000

59

65.6

223,000

Above 300,000

21

23.3

 

Source: Field survey, 2016

 

Awareness of cocoa certification programme

According to Chartrand (2005) consumer's awareness (either consciously or unconsciously) precedes the control, modification, elimination and change in human behaviours and decisions. Thus, effective consumer behaviuor can only be materialized through awareness. Therefore, to participate in cocoa certification or not will first depend on the awareness of the members of the cocoa farmers. Result showed that majority (66.7%) of the respondents was aware of the cocoa certification while 33.3% were not aware of the cocoa certification. This is possible because of their high level of literacy.

 

Table 2: Awareness of cocoa certification programme (n = 90)

Awareness of cocoa certification programme

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

60

66.7

No

30

33.3

 

Source of information on cocoa certification programme

This study identified various sources of information available to cocoa farmers in the study area. Sources ranging from fellow farmers, extension agents, friends and neighbors, farmers union, health workers, radio/television, research institutes, internet and newspapers/magazines. The result showed that respondents accessed information through cocoa farmers association (33.3%), fellow farmers (24.4%), local buying agent (17.7%), and radio/television (15.6%) in the study area. Information is one of the most valuable resources for the development and progress of any enterprise. Abiona, (2010) opined that farmers sources of information have influence in the decision to accept or reject a technology.

 

Table 3: Respondents source of information on cocoa certification programme (n = 90)

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Fellow farmers

22

24.4

Local Buying Agent

16

17.7

Radio/Television

14

15.6

Extension agents

08

8.9

Exporters/Processors

0

0.0

Cocoa farmers association

30

33.3

Source: Field survey, 2016

 

Involvement

The four internationally accepted Standards Bodies are Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International, Rainforest Alliance, Certified Organic, and UTZ Certified. These standards are defined after consultation and in close cooperation with various stakeholders in the cocoa supply chain, including farmers. Standards Bodies advise farmers on how to implement better farming practices, establish protocols on dealing with environmental and social issues, implement auditing and third party verification on these issues, and communicate to consumers at the end of the trade chains, thereby creating a necessary level of assurance.

More specifically, better market access for small holder farmers; increasing the income of farm households; improving the living and working conditions of cocoa farmers and their families and workers; raising the opportunities for cocoa farmers to participate in the decision making processes behind cocoa marketing; and improving the conditions of the cocoa farmers’ natural resources (Vogel, 2009).

 

Table 4:

Recommended practices

High involvement

Moderate Involvement

No Involvement

Preparation of land and spacing 10ft x 10ft or 3m x 3m

 

 

 

Regular weeding of the cocoa farm

 

 

 

Removal of choupons

 

 

 

Wearing of protective clothing when handling or applying agro-chemicals

 

 

 

Harvesting of cocoa pods immediately they are ripe

 

 

 

Sun drying cocoa beans on raised platform (Taraga)

 

 

 

Source: Field survey, 2016

 

Constraints to cocoa production

The result in Table 4 showed that birds’ disturbance (86.3%), climate change (84.2%) and inadequate rainfall (84.2%) were the most serious problem confronting rice farming in the study area. Also, inadequate finance (78.9%) constituted another major impediment to rice farming in the study area. This agrees with the findings of Oyediran, (2013) that poor financing of agriculture is a major bottleneck to the growth and development of agricultural sector in Nigeria. This was followed by poor market system (77.9%), pest and diseases incidence (71.6%) and poor soil fertility (57.8%). Similarly, rice farming activities were affected by land tenure system (36.8%), and incidence of fire outbreak (15.8%).

Similarly, the cocoa sector’s labour practices have received public attention, particularly since the international media began reporting on child labour in West Africa resulting in increased consumer demand for cocoa products originating from socially sustainable producers who respect international social standards (Certification Capacity Enhancement, 2012).

 

Table 4: Distribution based on constraints to cocoa production (n = 90)

s/n

Constraints

Yes

No

1.

Inadequate finance

75  (83.3)

15 (16.7)

2.

Lack of information

68 (75.6)

22 (24.4)

3.

Lack of buyers of certified cocoa beans

80 (88.9)

10 (11.1)

4.

Nonpayment of premium

35 (38.9)

55 (61.1)

5.

High cost of labour

15 (16.7)

75 (83.3)

6.

Inadequate planting materials

55 (61.1)

35 (38.9)

7.

Poor market system

74 (82.2)

16 (17.8)

8.

Inadequate inputs such as chemical

80 (88.9)

10 (11.1)

Figures in parenthesis are percentages

Dr Jones Arthur

Dr Jones Arthur, Sunyani Technical University

Title: Dr Jones Arthur
Biography:

Abstract:

Cocoa Production in Nigeria had witnessed a rapid decline in the past two and a half decades mainly as a result of focus shift due to the oil boom since the late 1970s (Idowu, 2007). Nevertheless, agriculture especially cash crops export and particularly cocoa remains a substantial foreign exchange earner for the country. Cocoa is sourced from several regions around the world; West Africa is the largest producer, making up 70 percent of the world cocoa. The West African nation of Cot de voire alone grows 40 percent of the global supply of cocoa, with Ghana, Cameroon and Nigeria being the other major producers in the region (International Cocoa Organisation, 2007).  Nigeria is one of the principal producers and is ranked among the five largest producers of cocoa in the world. Cocoa is a perennial tree crop produced mainly in the tropical countries. Currently, production is concentrated in the West African Countries like Nigeria, Cote d’ Ivoire, Ghana and Cameroon. These countries collectively produce 70% of the world cocoa. In 2010/2011 season Cote d’ Ivoire led the world in cocoa production with 35% followed by Ghana, Indonesia and Nigeria (International Cocoa Organisation, 2012).

Table 1: World Cocoa Production (2010/2011)

Country

Amount Produced

Percentage of world production

Cote d’Ivoire

1.30 million

38.6% tones

Ghana

720 thousand tonnes

21.4%

Indonesia

574 thousand tonnes

17.0%

Nigeria

212 thousand tonnes

6.3%

Brazil

180 thousand tonnes

5.3%

Cameroon

175 thousand tonnes

5.2%

Ecuador

118 thousand tonnes

3.5%

Dominican republic

47 thousand tonnes

1.4%

Malaysia

43 thousand tonnes

1.3%

Source: International Cocoa Organisation, (2012).

 

Cocoa is essential to the livelihood of 40-50 million people worldwide including over 5 million small holder cocoa farmers who grow the valuable crop (Adebile and Amusan, 2011). Cocoa plays an important role in most countries as a source of foreign exchange and creation of jobs for an estimated fourteen million people (International Cocoa Organisation, 2007). Cocoa is mostly produced in 14 of the 36 States in Nigeria. The main producing states aside from Cross River in the South South are located in the South West of the country with major producing areas located in Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti Oyo States. Nwachukwu et al. (2010) identified low yields, ageing cocoa producing trees, inconsistent production patterns, disease incidence, pest attack and limited agricultural mechanization as key factors leading to decreasing cocoa production in Nigeria. In terms of yield, compared to other cocoa producing countries, Nigeria’s present yield is among the lowest, together with Ghana and Cameroon, while Cote d’Ivoire is the best performing country in West Africa in terms of yield while Indonesia is the best performer at the global level in terms of yield (Cadoni, 2013). This poor trend in yield, quality and monetary returns calls for the introduction of certification in cocoa production. Certification is a procedure by which an independent body gives a certificate that a farm, farmer group, processing facility, trader, importer or exporter has been assessed and is adhering to specific standards. The certification is intended to guarantee that the cocoa sold under the seal of a standard organization such as Fair Trade International (FLO), UTZ Certified, or Rainforest Alliance (RA) actually originated from a farm or operation that produces according to the relevant standards. Certification thus guarantees the authenticity and the integrity of sustainably produced cocoa being purchased by consumers. Participation in markets for certified cocoa represents a good income generation opportunity for small farmers in developing countries. However, for famers to avail themselves of this opportunity they would have to comply with voluntary quality and safety standards and procedures. According to Vogel (2009) the main objective of certified cocoa production is to improve the living conditions of cocoa farmers through the production of sustainable certified cocoa. Increasing farmers’ awareness of the environmental consequences of food contamination through poor farm practices resulted in a growing demand for the involvement of cocoa farmers in environmentally-friendly practices through certification. Certified cocoa production systems are distinguished by their adherence to a set of production and social standards promulgated by the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN). Cocoa output within this category is differentiated by a certificate issued by a recognized certification body that ensures standards have been met. Certified cocoa is differentiated on the basis of practices that are deemed environmentally sustainable and conserving of biodiversity. The broad objective of this study is therefore to assess cocoa farmers’ awareness and involvement in cocoa certification programme in enhancing cocoa productivity in Ogun State, Nigeria.

 

1.4 Specific Objectives are to;

i.                    ascertain the socio-economic characteristics of cocoa farmers in the study area;

ii.                  examine  respondents’ awareness of cocoa certification programme;

iii.                identify respondents’ sources of information on cocoa certification;

iv.                ascertain the level of farmers involvement in the cocoa certification programme;

v.                  identify the constraints associated with involvement in cocoa certification programme.

 

The hypotheses of the study were stated in null form:

H01: There is no significant relationship between the socio economic characteristics of the respondents and level of involvement in the cocoa certification programme in the study area.

H02:  There is no significant relationship between the constraints affecting cocoa farmers and their involvement in the cocoa certification programme in the study area

 

METHODOLOGY

The study was carried out in Ogun state, Nigeria. The state is situated among the Southwestern states of Nigeria, with a landmass of 16,409.26 square kilometers. The study area has 20 Local Government Areas, with a total of 4,054,272 (National Population Commission (NPC), 2006). Purposive random sampling was used to select two Local Government Areas namely; Yewa North and Odeda based on the high concentration of cocoa farmers in the two locations. Yewa  and Odeda people are predominantly farmers, common crops grown in the local governments include,  arable crops like cassava, maize, yam among others and cash crops like cocoa, oil palm, coffee and kola nuts.

 

Sampling Procedure and Sample Size

Yewa North Local Government Area was purposively selected for this study based on the a prior information that the local government area is the second largest cocoa producer in Ogun State. There are eleven wards in Yewa north Local Government Area. Four wards namely: Imasayi, Ibese, Igbogila, Joga, were purposively selected based on the high population of cocoa farmers in these wards.

 

Measurement of Variables

Age, household size, farming experience were measured at ratio level while sex, educational status, membership of association, marital status, sources of capital, labour, and constraints were measured at nominal level. Similarly, awareness, was measured as Yes (2), No (1). Level of respondents’ involvement in cocoa certification programme were measured as High Involvement (3), Moderate Involvement (2), No Involvement (1) and measured at nominal level.

 

Data Collection and Analysis

The instrument used for the data collection was subjected to face and content validity by consulting experts in the field of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. Items found ambiguous were removed. Test re-test was carried out with twenty (20) cocoa farmers who were not part of this study to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. The reliability of r = 0.76 which was significant indicating high internal consistency of the instrument used for this study. Simple descriptive statistics such as percentage, mean and frequency counts were used to analyze the objectives while chi-square; t-test was used to test the hypotheses of the study.

Results and discussion

The results in Table 1 revealed that majority (58.9%) of the respondents were above 40 years of age. About thirty percent (28.9%) of the respondents were between 31 – 40 years of age while only very few (12.20%) were less than 30 years of age. The average age of the respondents was 30.8 years. This indicates that the respondents are young and active. It corroborates the findings of Omoare and Oyediran, (2015) that people within this age bracket are economically active and possess the requisite energy for agricultural production. The results showed that most (92.2%) of the respondents were male while few (7.8%) were female in cocoa production. This is possible because cocoa farming is a tedious which makes more men to dominate in its production than compare to the women who carry out processing and marketing of cocoa bean. Majority (70%) of the respondents had secondary school education but 13.3% proceeded to tertiary education while 16.7% attended primary school. This implies that all the respondents have some level of formal education which could be advantage to adjust to new practices and got certification.the date assessed.rces.ll make available to Ngerians cost effective and envirinmentally ces. On the other hand government policy The result indicated that the household size of most (71.1%) of the respondents was 1 - 4 people while 28.9% had 5 – 8 people. Meanwhile, the average household size was 6 members. This shows that the household size of respondents was relatively large. Adegbite et al. (2007) cited in Omoare and Oyediran (2015) reported that large households’ size is an important factor in any rural areas because it provides the manpower for farm and other household activities. Also, the result showed that 31.1% of the respondents had spent less than 5 years in cocoa farming while many (63.3%) had been in cocoa farming for more than 11 years while. The mean year of experience in cocoa farming was 8.06 years. This shows that the respondents have been in cocoa farming for quite a long time. Above forty percent (44.1%) of the respondents cultivated more than 10 hectares of farm land, the implication of this is that cocoa farming is practiced on large scale in the study area. Only very few (12.2%) of the respondents cultivated less than 5 hectares for cocoa. The result disagrees to the findings of Kolawole, (2007) cited in Oyediran, (2013) which states that many rural farmers cultivate less than 3 hectares, Nigeria. The result on land acquisition revealed that 40.5% of the respondents inherited cocoa farms while 19.8% bought the farms. However, 14.4% and 6.3% respondents occupied the land as leaseholders and tenants respectively. This practice reflects the ageing cocoa farming with attendant low yield in Nigeria. Also, about fifty percent of the respondents were members of Cocoa Farmers Association (CFAN). Being a member of association exposes the farmers to many opportunities like credits, technology and certification. The result further showed that respondents got money through their personal savings (38.7%), cooperative (22.5%), and friends and family (19.8%) for the cocoa production in the study area. The finding agrees with Ajagbe et al. 2014 and Oyediran, 2013 that rural farmers do not have access to credit from financial institution but rather relied on cooperatives, friends and families and their personal savings which has inhibited their production capacity. Above fifty percent (52.2%) of the respondents were into full-time cocoa farming while others (28.8%) of the respondents were doing part-time farming. Most (65.6%) of the respondents generated ₦100,000 – 300,000/annum while 23.3% realized more than ₦300,000/ annum.  The average income generated from cocoa was ₦223,000.

 

Table 2: Distribution of respondents according to their socio economic characteristics (n = 90)

Variables

Frequency

Percentage (%)

Mean

Age

 

 

 

Below 30

11

12.20

 

31-40

26

28.90

 

41 and above

53

58.90

30.80

Sex

 

 

 

Male

83

92.20

 

Female

07

7.80

 

Educational status

 

 

 

Primary education

15

16.70

 

Secondary education

63

70.00

 

Tertiary education

12

13.30

 

Household size

 

 

 

1-4

26

28.90

 

5-8

64

71.10

3

Farming  experience (years)

 

 

 

Below 5

28

31.10

8.06

6-10

5

5.60

 

11 and above

57

63.30

 

Farm size (hectares)

 

 

 

>5

11

12.20

 

5-10

30

27.00

 

Above 10

49

44.10

 

Land acquisition

 

 

 

Tenant

07

6.30

 

Inheritance

45

40.5

 

Purchase

22

19.8

 

Leasehold

16

14.4

 

Membership of Association

 

 

 

Yes

54

48.6

 

No

36

32.4

 

Source of Fund

 

 

 

Friends and family

22

19.8

 

Cooperative society

25

22.5

 

Self savings

43

38.7

 

Occupational status

 

 

 

Full time

58

52.2

 

Part time

32

28.8

 

Income size (₦)

 

 

 

Less than 100,000

10

11.1

 

100,000 - 300,000

59

65.6

223,000

Above 300,000

21

23.3

 

Source: Field survey, 2016

 

Awareness of cocoa certification programme

According to Chartrand (2005) consumer's awareness (either consciously or unconsciously) precedes the control, modification, elimination and change in human behaviours and decisions. Thus, effective consumer behaviuor can only be materialized through awareness. Therefore, to participate in cocoa certification or not will first depend on the awareness of the members of the cocoa farmers. Result showed that majority (66.7%) of the respondents was aware of the cocoa certification while 33.3% were not aware of the cocoa certification. This is possible because of their high level of literacy.

 

Table 2: Awareness of cocoa certification programme (n = 90)

Awareness of cocoa certification programme

Frequency

Percentage

Yes

60

66.7

No

30

33.3

 

Source of information on cocoa certification programme

This study identified various sources of information available to cocoa farmers in the study area. Sources ranging from fellow farmers, extension agents, friends and neighbors, farmers union, health workers, radio/television, research institutes, internet and newspapers/magazines. The result showed that respondents accessed information through cocoa farmers association (33.3%), fellow farmers (24.4%), local buying agent (17.7%), and radio/television (15.6%) in the study area. Information is one of the most valuable resources for the development and progress of any enterprise. Abiona, (2010) opined that farmers sources of information have influence in the decision to accept or reject a technology.

 

Table 3: Respondents source of information on cocoa certification programme (n = 90)

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Fellow farmers

22

24.4

Local Buying Agent

16

17.7

Radio/Television

14

15.6

Extension agents

08

8.9

Exporters/Processors

0

0.0

Cocoa farmers association

30

33.3

Source: Field survey, 2016

 

Involvement

The four internationally accepted Standards Bodies are Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International, Rainforest Alliance, Certified Organic, and UTZ Certified. These standards are defined after consultation and in close cooperation with various stakeholders in the cocoa supply chain, including farmers. Standards Bodies advise farmers on how to implement better farming practices, establish protocols on dealing with environmental and social issues, implement auditing and third party verification on these issues, and communicate to consumers at the end of the trade chains, thereby creating a necessary level of assurance.

More specifically, better market access for small holder farmers; increasing the income of farm households; improving the living and working conditions of cocoa farmers and their families and workers; raising the opportunities for cocoa farmers to participate in the decision making processes behind cocoa marketing; and improving the conditions of the cocoa farmers’ natural resources (Vogel, 2009).

 

Table 4:

Recommended practices

High involvement

Moderate Involvement

No Involvement

Preparation of land and spacing 10ft x 10ft or 3m x 3m

 

 

 

Regular weeding of the cocoa farm

 

 

 

Removal of choupons

 

 

 

Wearing of protective clothing when handling or applying agro-chemicals

 

 

 

Harvesting of cocoa pods immediately they are ripe

 

 

 

Sun drying cocoa beans on raised platform (Taraga)

 

 

 

Source: Field survey, 2016

 

Constraints to cocoa production

The result in Table 4 showed that birds’ disturbance (86.3%), climate change (84.2%) and inadequate rainfall (84.2%) were the most serious problem confronting rice farming in the study area. Also, inadequate finance (78.9%) constituted another major impediment to rice farming in the study area. This agrees with the findings of Oyediran, (2013) that poor financing of agriculture is a major bottleneck to the growth and development of agricultural sector in Nigeria. This was followed by poor market system (77.9%), pest and diseases incidence (71.6%) and poor soil fertility (57.8%). Similarly, rice farming activities were affected by land tenure system (36.8%), and incidence of fire outbreak (15.8%).

Similarly, the cocoa sector’s labour practices have received public attention, particularly since the international media began reporting on child labour in West Africa resulting in increased consumer demand for cocoa products originating from socially sustainable producers who respect international social standards (Certification Capacity Enhancement, 2012).

 

Table 4: Distribution based on constraints to cocoa production (n = 90)

s/n

Constraints

Yes

No

1.

Inadequate finance

75  (83.3)

15 (16.7)

2.

Lack of information

68 (75.6)

22 (24.4)

3.

Lack of buyers of certified cocoa beans

80 (88.9)

10 (11.1)

4.

Nonpayment of premium

35 (38.9)

55 (61.1)

5.

High cost of labour

15 (16.7)

75 (83.3)

6.

Inadequate planting materials

55 (61.1)

35 (38.9)

7.

Poor market system

74 (82.2)

16 (17.8)

8.

Inadequate inputs such as chemical

80 (88.9)

10 (11.1)

Figures in parenthesis are percentages

Biography:

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact of the government of Ghana block farm program participation on rural households’ farm productivity, income, food security and nutritional status in Northern Ghana using cross-sectional data.  Data analysis was done using the Instrumental Variable and the Heckman Selection Bias Model procedures.  Our analysis indicates that participation in the block farm program significantly increased the productivity of maize, rice, and soybean by 21.3 percent, 15.8 percent, and 12.3 percent respectively.  Also, the program participation was found to increase households’ farm income by 20 percent in northern Ghana.  Furthermore, program participation was found to improve household food security and nutrition by 19 percent and 14 percent respectively through its income effect.  Based on the benefit-cost ratio of 1.59 the results from the study recommends that the program is expanded to other communities in the northern region.  Further analysis indicates that rural households’ decision to participate in food security intervention programs is significantly influenced by factors including the gender of the household head, the age of the household head, and household size. Results of the study further show that gender of household head, household size, household monthly income, household assets, women educational status, the age of women, marital status of women, are significant determinants of food security and nutrition status in Northern Ghana.

 

Jacques Fils Pierre,

Jacques Fils Pierre,rua olavo dos santos pereira,campo grande, rio de janeiro,Brazil CEP:23076410

Title: IMPACT OF THE GOVERNMENT OF GHANA BLOCK FARM PROGRAM ON RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN NORTHERN GHANA
Biography:

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact of the government of Ghana block farm program participation on rural households’ farm productivity, income, food security and nutritional status in Northern Ghana using cross-sectional data.  Data analysis was done using the Instrumental Variable and the Heckman Selection Bias Model procedures.  Our analysis indicates that participation in the block farm program significantly increased the productivity of maize, rice, and soybean by 21.3 percent, 15.8 percent, and 12.3 percent respectively.  Also, the program participation was found to increase households’ farm income by 20 percent in northern Ghana.  Furthermore, program participation was found to improve household food security and nutrition by 19 percent and 14 percent respectively through its income effect.  Based on the benefit-cost ratio of 1.59 the results from the study recommends that the program is expanded to other communities in the northern region.  Further analysis indicates that rural households’ decision to participate in food security intervention programs is significantly influenced by factors including the gender of the household head, the age of the household head, and household size. Results of the study further show that gender of household head, household size, household monthly income, household assets, women educational status, the age of women, marital status of women, are significant determinants of food security and nutrition status in Northern Ghana.

 

Biography:

Abstract:

Although child and maternal malnutrition has been reduced in Bangladesh, the prevalence of underweight (weight-for-age z-score <-2) among children aged less than five years is still high (41%). Nearly one-third of women are undernourished with body mass index of <18.5 kg/m2. The prevalence of anemia among young infants, adolescent girls, and pregnant women is still at unacceptable levels. Despite the successes in specific programmes, such as the Expanded Programme on Immunization and vitamin A supplementation, programmes for nutrition interventions are yet to be implemented at scale for reaching the entire population. Given the low annual rate of reduction in child under nutrition of 1.27 percentage points per year, it is unlikely that Bangladesh would be able to achieve the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goal to address under nutrition. This warrants that the policy-makers and programme managers think urgently about the ways to accelerate the progress. The Government, development partners, non-government organizations, and the academia have to work in concert to improve the coverage of basic and effective nutrition interventions, including exclusive breastfeeding, appropriate complementary feeding, supplementation of micronutrients to children, adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women, management of severe acute malnutrition and deworming, and hygiene interventions, coupled with those that address more structural causes and indirectly improve nutrition. The entire health system needs to be revitalized to overcome the constraints that exist at the levels of policy, governance, and service-delivery, and also for the creation of demand for the services at the household level. In addition, management of nutrition in the aftermath of natural disasters and stabilization of prices of foods should also be prioritized.

Biography:

Abstract:

Whip Smut caused by Ustilago scitaminae is an economically important disease of sugarcane. In total, 103 promising sugarcane lines/varieties were screened to evaluate their performance against whip smut. All sugarcane lines were genotyped using SSR markers to find genetic diversity among them. Three hundred and fourteen (314) alleles were scored with an average of 10.46 alleles per marker. Ninety nine (99%) of the alleles were found polymorphic. High Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranging 0.67 to 0.93 calculated for each marker determines the high potential of using these markers for genetic diversity studies. Similarly the Resolving Power (RP) values which depends upon the distribution of alleles within the genotypes, were also found high ranging from 3.68 (SCC-89) to 16.54 (SMC 545 MS) with an average of 9.12 per marker.  DNAMAN generated homology tree was constructed based upon the genotyping files of 103 sugarcane lines/varieties. The genetic similarity of 66% to 88% was found among all the sugarcane lines.  Based upon the homology tree, the sugarcane lines were grouped into eighteen (18) clusters. Sugarcane lines under some clusters showed complete resistance to whip smut where as in others differential response to whip smut was observed. This indicated that whip smut resistance is neither restricted to particular sub-population nor governed by genes with widespread effect but is indeed a genuine quantitative trait. The markers mSSCIR-19 and mSSCIR-43 can be used to distinguish between whip smut resistant and susceptible sugarcane lines/ varieties. These results may help cane breeders in designing crosses between more diverse whip smut resistant sugarcane line for the development of whip smut resistant sugarcane cultivars.

Keywords: Sugarcane, genetic diversity, SSR markers, whip smut, homology tree.

Dr. Gamuchirai Chakona

Dr. Gamuchirai Chakona, Department of Environmental Science Rhodes University P O Box 94 Grahamstown, 6140 South Africa

Title: Household food insecurity along an agro-ecological gradient influences children’s nutritional status in South Africa
Biography:

Abstract:

 

Abstract

The burden of food insecurity and malnutrition is a severe problem experienced by many poor households and children under the age of five are at high risk. The objective of the study was to examine household food insecurity, dietary diversity and child nutritional status in relation to local context which influences access to and ability to grow food in South Africa and explore the links and associations between these and household socio-economic status. Using a 48-hour dietary recall method, we interviewed 554 women from randomly selected households along a rural-urban continuum in three towns situated along an agro-ecological gradient. The Household Dietary Diversity Scores (HDDS) and the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) tools were used to measure household dietary diversity and food insecurity respectively. Anthropometric measurements with 216 children (2-5 years) from the sampled households were conducted using height-for-age (HAZ) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) as indicators of stunting and wasting respectively. The key findings were that mean HDDS declined with decreasing agro-ecological potential from the wettest site (8.44±1.72) to the other two drier sites (7.83±1.59 and 7.76±1.63). The mean HFIAS followed the opposite trend. Stunted growth was the dominant form of malnutrition detected in 35% of children and 18% of children were wasted. Child wasting was greatest at the site with lowest agro-ecological potential. Children from households with low HDDS had large MUAC which showed an inverse association among HDDS and obesity. Areas with agro-ecological potential had lower prevalence of food insecurity and wasting in children. Agro-ecological potential has significant influence on children’s nutritional status, which is also related to household food security and socioeconomic status. Dependence on food purchasing and any limitations in households’ income, access to land and food, can result in different forms of malnutrition in children. Responses to address malnutrition in South Africa need to be prioritized and move beyond relying on food security and nutritional specific interventions, but rather on nutrition specific and sensitive programs and approaches; and building an enabling environment. Land availability, agriculture (including climate-smart agriculture especially in drier areas) and wild foods usage should be promoted.

 

Peter Kofitsas

Peter Kofitsas, 792 Rivervale Road River Vale, NJ 07675

Title: The First Sustainable Greek Restaurant in NYC; A Case Study
Biography:

Peter Kofitsas MS, PT is an International Health Coach, Nutritionist, Physical Therapist, Speaker, Author, and Food/Restaurant Consultant. As an expert for the media, he has appeared on ABC, FOX, MSN, TLC, Blogtalkradio and in Fitness magazine. He’s the author of 3 books, including, Shop, Cook, Eat. He’s also the creator of the 5 Minutes to Fitness+ Program & Online Club, a revolutionary lifestyle program for achieving optimal health, which has been featured on QVC and FOX, and designed to motivate & guide those wanting to lose weight and be healthy. His clients include: celebrities, “Fortune 100″ companies, restaurants, non-profit organizations and individuals.

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: 90% of the world’s fisheries are now fully exploited, or have collapsed according to the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch. Livestock and their byproducts account for at least 51% of all worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, according to WorldWatch. And people are unhealthier than ever, largely because of what they eat. The food service industry, particularly the restaurant sector, can have a big impact on the environment regarding sourcing sustainably grown or caught food. We can also source foods that directly impact our health, while still creating delicious food. 70% of people who dine out say they are trying to eat healthier. Those in food service can help them, and the planet. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Kellari Taverna, a Greek restaurant located in midtown Manhattan in New York City decided to source ingredients that were defined as sustainable. The definitions of sustainability included foods that met at least one of the following criteria: organic, local, fresh, non-gmo, no antibiotics, no hormones, no preservatives, from small independent farmers or fisherman who implemented sustainable measures. Findings: It is possible to source sustainable ingredients for a NYC restaurant from food purveyors, farmers, farmers markets, and specialty wholesalers. Conclusion & Significance: The restaurant was able to source the ingredients for every single ingredient on the menu except for several, including pita bread. There was an increase in food costs but it was offset by the kitchen’s practices of either recycling food, or using typically discarded ingredients to create other dishes from. The menu was well received by the staff and guests.

Sara Sintayehu

Sara Sintayehu, Department of Plant Biology and Biodiversity Management P. O. Box: 3434, National Herbarium (ETH)

Title: The Study of Growth and Physiological Characters in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Introgression Lines Under Post flowering Drought Stress
Biography:

Sara Sintayehu are expertise in plant biology and biodiversity management. She has Master of Science in plant physiology. At the time being she is a lecturer in Hararmaya University, College of Agriculture, Ethiopia. Her thesis has focused on drought tolerance mechanism of drought tolerant genotypes which were backcrossed with stay green parent. Currently she is working on project of wild edible plants in Eastern Ethiopia for increasing the food demand of the community.                                                                                                                        

Abstract:

Abstract

Drought  is  serious  problem  in  rainfed  areas  due  to  rapid  change  in  climatic  conditions. Among prevailing abiotic stresses, it is the most significant and severe factor inhibiting plant growth and production through impairing normal growth, disturbance of water relations, reduction of water use efficiency and yield performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, physiological and yield performance of sorghum introgression lines under postflowering stress. The field experiment was conducted on seven  stay-green QTLs introgression lines  (marker  assisted  backcrossing  derivatives),  two stay-green  donor  parents  and  three recurrent  parents  obtained  from  Melkassa  Agricultural  Research  Center.  The  experimental materials  were  tested  in  split plot   design  under  well watered  (WW)  and  drought  stress (DS)  growing  conditions  at  Melka Werer  field  sites  during  the  post-rainy  cropping  season  of 2014.  The  combined  ANOVA  revealed  that  effect  due  to  moisture  regimes  (MR)  was highly significant (P < 0.05) for all traits. Differences among the genotypes were also highly significant (P < 0.05) for all traits considered. Post-flowering drought stress reduced growth, physiological and yield related traits relative to the well watered condition. Drought induction  reduced  average leaf area, green leaf number, chlorophyll content, relative water content, CO2 assimilation, transpiration, water use efficiency, root length, root dry weight, grain yield,  hundred kernel  weight and panicle weight. B35, E36-1, Meko x B35-120, Meko x B35-116,   Teshale x B35-2011 and Teshale x E36-1 showed  better  drought  stress  tolerance  and  stay green  property.  Meko x B35-120, Meko x B35-116, Teshale x B35-2011 and Teshale x E36-1 was selected for maximum grain yield under post-flowering drought condition. Correlation,analysis revealed that chlorophyll content, green leaf  area,  assimilation  rate,  water  use  efficiency,  lower  rate  of  leaf  senescence, root length, root dry weight  and grain  yield  have  been  found  to  be  growth and physiological  traits for drought tolerance and for stay-green property during post-flowering stage.

 

Biography:

Evelina Knodel is an architect and urban designer currently working at the Hudson Valley Design Lab in Poughkeepsie, NY, a satellite office of the architecture firm, MASS Design Group. She has received her Bachelor’s Degree in architecture from University of Minnesota and her Master’s in Architecture and Urban Design from Columbia University. Her passion lies in just and equitable food systems, understanding that food is a primary cultural and social integrator that takes place at many different scales and in varying contexts. Though it is a necessity, equitable access to food is confounded by large and complex systems that are difficult, though not impossible, to change. Evelina’s career in design has led her to appreciate the power of visualization and community engagement to prompt unique perspectives and catalyze change on many levels. She has been conducting research in the Hudson Valley into the concept of gleaning networks and is excited about the dialogues and opportunities it unleashes. 

Abstract:

Abstract

A thorough analysis of the history of “gleaning” exposes underlying discussions about moral obligations to the poor and hungry, the role of government in land management and agricultural production, the drastic separation between food production and consumption, leading causes behind food insecurity, and market pressures that drive overproduction and cosmetic standards that lead to food waste. These issues are well illustrated the Hudson Valley where an incredible bounty of fresh, local produce and dairy is juxtaposed with rising impoverished, unemployed, and food insecure populations. A growing network of gleaning programs has already taken shape in Orange, Ulster, and Columbia Counties gathering leftover food from farms and distributing it to various emergency food aid agencies. It used to be that poor or unemployed would go directly into the fields to glean. Nowadays, disenfranchised hardly have access to grocery stores, let alone agricultural fields. Government policies provide Food Stamps and WIC (Women Infants and Children) benefits, but these provisions, like the entire food system, are disjointed. The logical matching of food abundance and food scarcity is going to require the integration of farmers and urban residents, policy and community initiatives, job creation and food recovery, institution and city, youth and elderly, men and women. This project attempts to establish the foundation for a gleaning network in the Hudson Valley by beginning a “gleaning database” that provides information not only about available excess food, but also about food scarcity and inequitable access. By visualizing the disconnections between food production and food consumption and the many steps in between, the injustices of food access take on new meaning; they demand changes in the current food system, but they also acknowledge that reassessing, reconfiguring, and reconnecting existing regional assets—from farmers to food outlets to institutions to local community members—could catalyze those changes.

 

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Figure 01: Seasonality of Available Food in the Hudson Valley


 

Biography:

Abstract:

Soup kitchens, better defined as meal centers, or, other facilities with the means of providing free food to people who otherwise cannot afford to feed themselves are often underfunded or neglected in a systematic and societal manner. Society tends to hold the belief that people should always possess their own means to feed themselves and their families and if they do not it is a reflection of their own invalidity, rather than a systematic poverty trap. The aim of this research is to present practical reasoning in support of creating a societal push for members of society to volunteer at meal centers and for more government funded multi-serviced meal centers to develop. Feeding those who cannot feed themselves presents its moral values but also can present a possibility for an increase in overall productivity in our global society. This research and consequential conclusions are applicable to the United States government funding allocation following the 2016 presidential election are provides suggestions for meal centers with sustainable, locally grown, nutritious, and chemical-free foods.

 

Text Box: The below graph depicts the results of Pender, Gilbert, and Serpell’s 2014 study. Those who fasted reported lower levels of central coherence than those who did not fast. These results support the hypothesis that those who starve exhibit slower mental processes then those who are properly nourished. 

Description: is chart.pngDescription: poverty cycle  .pngText Box: The graph below, created by the Food and Agricultural Organization (1994), illustrates the cycle of poverty as a direct result of those who face persistent hunger.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Biography:

Abstract:

Abstract— Purchasing and consuming foods sold by the food truck vendors is becoming a popular trend due to the hectic lifestyle of Malaysian people nowadays.Street-vended foods are usually produced in small mobile units (e.g., vans, trailers or carts) from which food is sold, mostly with inadequate layout and equipment, frequently associated with poor environmental sanitation, improper food handling and storage practices, as well as low quality of raw materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of halalan-toyyiban practices among food truck vendors in Selangor. The research was focused on the hygiene practices by the food handlers operating food truck service.  Presence of foodborne pathogen of the high risks foods during preparation and storage to the point of consumer purchase were assessed at a certain period of times. 10 sample of the meals from ten different food-truck vendors were collected at three different gap of hours for microbiological analysis using 3M petrifilm, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus., aerobic bacteria and coliform present. The data obtained from this study showed that the present of microbe effect by the practices of food handling in increasing of time where the food exposed. Five vendors were audit and interviewed on the halal supply chain accordance to the MS 1500:2009 Standard showed poor implement on halal product in order to get cheap prices. It was concluded that the food analyzed in this study were unhygienic.

Biography:

Abstract:

Abstract

Food security remains the greatest challenge for the developing economies. Embedding smallholders into high value chains presents the best prospects for addressing hunger and development in such budding economies. Production and marketing of African indigenous vegetables (AIVs) offers opportunities for smallholders to participate in higher value chains in Kenya.  There is growing demand for AIVs among the middle and upper class urban consumers due to promotional campaigns by research organizations and public agencies. The vegetables are rich in macro and micro-nutrients and possess bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential making them very suitable for food and nutritional security. Production of AIVs are predominantly by smallholders in rural and peri-urban areas in Kenya. These vegetables are now sold in big supermarkets signaling prospects for smallholder to participate in coordinated higher value chains. Access and participation in these higher value chains depends on the embeddedness in the coordination and governance structures. Based on an exploratory multiple case study, this paper comprehensively maps out chain actors and their activities, assesses the coordination and governance structures that influences participation in the AIV value chains in Kenya. It further identifies constraints and opportunities for integration and finally explores upgrading strategies for sustainable smallholders’ participation.  A comparison has been made between governance coordination in the traditional and coordinated value chains for rural and peri-urban smallholders. A stratified multistage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 288 respondents and data was collected through semi-structured interviews using different instruments for different nodal actors. Majority of farmers (98%) participate in traditional value chains as compared to only 2% that supply supermarkets which represent coordinated value chains. The study did not find collective actions for marketing indigenous vegetables among rural farmers. There were no direct transaction relationships between rural farmers with the more remunerative urban traders and supermarket outlets. Farmers in the peri-urban areas made use of farmer groups to participate in urban wholesale markets as well as supply supermarket outlets. The wholesalers and supermarkets set compliance parameters such as price, quality and quantities in the traditional and coordinated value chains respectively. Vertical linkages between value chain actors in both coordinated and traditional value chains are weak; mostly characterized by “arms-length” market transactions, except for the modular governance arrangements exhibited between supermarkets and their suppliers.

 

Biography:

Abstract:

With the resurgence of interest in urban agriculture and urban food systems, policy makers across the United States have been working to try and find the best ways possible to build, grow and maintain more sustainable, effective and equitable food systems. Although progress has been encouraging, recent interventions to improve food systems have met a number of obstacles, chief among them being the struggle to provide true equality within the system, a concept more commonly referred to as “food sovereignty.” In order to provide truly equitable food systems, food needs to be thought of not just as a commodity, but also as an integral part of the social life of members within specific communities. In order to do that, a more nuanced contextual understanding of current urban community food systems and what food systems those communities ideally envision must be taken into account. Geonarratives, a mixed-methods analysis approach that combines geographic information systems (GIS) with more traditional survey methods, stands uniquely qualified to tackle this problem. This study seeks to create geonarratives for members of select communities within Baltimore city showing their current interaction with their food system from a geospatial perspective, and then use these geonarratives during a follow-up interview to assist participants in envisioning their ideal food system and how they would interact with it. Providing a geospatial context to how someone interacts with their food system will provide them with the knowledge necessary to envision a more equitable and supportive system tailored to their specific needs.

Biography:

Ms. Fikralem Alemu is a PhD fellow at Addis Ababa University, Institute of Water Resources. Ms Alemu has been working with FHI360 Ethiopia as a health and nutrition specialist (includes WASH). Ms Alemu has a particular interest in WASH and Nutrition.

Abstract:

Household food insecurity are major challenges of low and middle-income countries, nutrition and health interventions routinely overlook integrating home gardening as a sustainable strategy to create access to fruit and vegetables for vulnerable groups. This study was conducted to explore the role of permagarden training and support in improving knowledge, attitude, skills and vegetable gardening practices of recipients. Cross sectional community based mixed method design was employed. In the quantitative survey 435 trained caregivers were interviewed face-to-face using semi-structured questionnaire. Data were computerized using Epi-data Version 3.1 and analyzed using STATA version 11. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with good level of permagarden practice.  Overall, 62% have good level of knowledge of permagarden skills, and 58% demonstrated good level of practice. More than two-third (68%) harvested vegetables at least twice in the year and for 90% of respondents household consumption is the primary purpose of growing vegetables although 66% reported selling vegetables from their garden. The extent of good level of permagarden practice is significantly associated with having good level of knowledge on basic permagarden skills (AOR: 3.54, 95%CI: 2.0-6.3), being a participant from Tigray region (AOR: 2.74, 95%CI:1.33-5.64), being male (AOR:4.62 (1.51-14.12), getting support of agricultural tool (AOR: 1.94, 95%CI (1.00-3.85), and getting follow-up support (AOR: 2 .00; 95%CI 1.04-3.77). Consistent with quantitative findings, results from qualitative study also indicate that permagardening training introduced modern vegetable gardening techniques, skills and inputs resulting in more yields. Unavailability of adequate garden space, shortage of water supply and shortage of agriculture tools were identified as challenges. The finding showed that introduction of permagarden has motivated households to practice home gardening implying that health and nutrition programs are likely to benefit from integrating permagarden to create access to nutrition for vulnerable groups.